Corresponding Author Information: Adam P. Natoli, PhD

Session Abstract: Background
One’s knowledge about how to optimally regulate their emotions may play an important role in emotion regulation (ER) functioning. No available measure directly examines the knowledge that potentially facilitates or hinders ER processes. This study developed a self-report instrument for measuring ER knowledge (Emotion Regulation Knowledge Scales; ERKS) and conducted an initial psychometric evaluation.

380 participants (227 male, 146 female, 1 transgendered, 1 non-binary, 5 missing) were recruited from MTurk and completed an online survey on emotions. The final sample averaged 40.13 years of age (SD = 12.31) and ranged between 19 and 73 years old. Race/ethnicity are reported.

Authors developed an initial pool of 77 items, which was reduced to 36 items based on feedback from clinicians and scholars in the field of ER. Study participants completed the 36-item ERKS, a modified version of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (MDERS), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), and demographic questions.

Instrument development involved a multi-phase process consisting of expert evaluation of a preliminary item pool; iterative cycles of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and item response theory (IRT) modeling to select a final set of items and affirm test structure; and an examination of construct validity, internal consistency, and readability.

ESEM and IRT (n = 380) results supported a single-factor solution containing 26 items; item difficulty and discrimination parameters are reported. Theoretically consistent (i.e., negative) correlations were found between the ERKS and measures of psychological distress (K10) and emotion dysregulation (MDERS), offering preliminary evidence of the measure’s construct validity. The ERKS demonstrated good internal consistency and readability at a fourth-grade level.

Results offer evidence indicating the ERKS measures a construct representing one’s knowledge of how to optimally regulate emotions (i.e., emotion regulation knowledge). Limitations and implications are discussed.


Adam P. Natoli, PhD | Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX

Julie F. Brown | Simmons University, Boston, MA

Dr. NatoliDr. Adam P. Natoli

Adam P. Natoli, Ph.D. is a Ronald E. McNair scholar and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology & Philosophy at Sam Houston State University. His research draws upon multimethod research designs to gain a greater understanding of the different psychological and physiological processes engaged by individuals as they partake in different methods of measurement and to clarify personality’s context-specific variability in everyday life. Learn more at

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