Corresponding Author Information: Catherine Hanigan

Session Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Research on potential test bias has been conducted on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) instruments since the publication of the original MMPI. While assessment profiles are known to be influenced by a range of demographic variables, bias is indicated when an instrument measures a construct differently based on group membership. The influence of race and gender on MMPI, MMPI-2, MMPI-2-RF, and MMPI-A profiles has been examined; however, as of this writing, no examination of test bias has been published on the MMPI-A-RF. The purpose of this study was to examine the MMPI-A-RF Higher-Order scales (Emotional / Internalizing Dysfunction [EID], Thought Dysfunction [THD], and Behavioral / Externalizing Dysfunction [BXD]) for potential test bias as a function of gender and race.

SUBJECTS: Adolescents who were administered an MMPI-A at a university-based outpatient psychological clinic from 2006 to 2016 and provided a valid MMPI-A-RF profile (N=134).

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Archival data were collected from the case files of adolescent patients. MMPI-A-RF profiles were derived for each participant based on the MMPI-A data.

ANALYSES: Higher-Order (H-O) scale test bias for gender (male/female) and race (Black/White) was examined through the use of t-tests and logistic regression. External criteria included relevant diagnostic categories for the H-O scales.

RESULTS: Mean scale score differences and differential prediction of diagnosis was found only for EID as a function of gender.

CONCLUSIONS: The implications for potential test bias on the MMPI-A-RF are discussed. As the sample include a low base rate of psychotic disorders, a full evaluation of THD was not conducted. Therefore, future research on test bias is needed that includes not only more diverse external criterion, but also larger, more ethnically diverse, samples.


Catherine Hanigan | Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

Linda Baum | Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

Christopher Baker | Regent University, Virginia Beach, VA

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